orientalism summary

“…We need not decide here whether this kind of imaginative knowledge infuses history and geography, or whether in some way it overrides them. [10] French painters such as Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) and Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904) are widely regarded as the leading luminaries of the Orientalist movement.

Let us just say for the time being that it is there as something more than what appears to be merely positive knowledge.”[55], “Debates today about “Frenchness” and “Englishness” in France and Britain respectively, or about Islam in countries such as Egypt and Pakistan, are part of that same interpretive process which involves the identities of different “others,” whether they be outsiders and refugees, or apostates and infidels. In his book Orientalism (1978), cultural critic Edward Said redefines the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition—academic and artistic—of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, which was shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Saidian analysis has not prevented a strong revival of interest in, and collecting of, 19th century Orientalist works since the 1970s, the latter was in large part led by Middle Eastern buyers. "[81] The evolution of ideologies is often initially embedded in the language, and continues to ripple through the fabric of society by taking over the culture, economy and political sphere. [82] Much of Said's criticism of Western Orientalism is based on what he describes as articularizing trends. The false belief sprouted that people from these areas were stereotypically exotic and irrational, letting their passions run wild. These later became Orientalists who protected trade between Egypt and France. The West deliberately made the people from the East be viewed as irrational, overtly passionate and stereo typically seductive and exotic. Turquerie, which began as early as the late 15th century, continued until at least the 18th century, and included both the use of "Turkish" styles in the decorative arts, the adoption of Turkish costume at times, and interest in art depicting the Ottoman Empire itself. Mary Cassatt, an American artist who worked in France, used elements of combined patterns, flat planes and shifting perspective of Japanese prints in her own images. A particularly significant development is the manner in which Orientalism has taken shape in non-Western cinema, as for instance in Hindi-language cinema. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. This detailed literature summary also contains Topics for Discussion on Orientalism by Edward Said. Greece was still fighting for independence from the Ottomans, and was effectively as exotic as the more Near Eastern parts of the empire. Unfortunately, it was much harder to actually see and experience the culture accurately because of the Orientalist way of thinking. Orientalism, as traced back as far as three centuries ago, entailed the translation of Oriental materials to the dominant British language, English. [53] Marius Petipa re-choreographed the ballet for the Maryinsky Ballet in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1899. We are thankful for their contributions and encourage you to make your own. A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East",[1] was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, and the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. [79] Edward Said has been accused of Occidentalizing the west in his critique of Orientalism; of being guilty of falsely characterizing the West in the same way that he accuses Western scholars of falsely characterizing the East.

But it’s also the title of a book by Edward Said that reviews the effect of this belief system on the connections of Eastern and Western nations. Orientalism is a clear study of the fabricated ideologies of the orient. "The Orientalism espoused by Warren Hastings, William Jones and the early East India Company sought to maintain British domination over the Indian subcontinent through patronage of Hindu and Muslim languages and institutions, rather than through their eclipse by English speech and aggressive European acculturation. All these cultures were summarized into one culture which created room for deliberate misrepresentation of them. THAKS. "Orientalism Summary". In particular, many modern French artists such as Claude Monet and Edgar Degas were influenced by the Japanese style. not just the East, but the seductive East that emasculates, enslaves, renders passive.

C F Ives, "The Great Wave: The Influence of Japanese Woodcuts on French Prints", 1974, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gabriel, Karen & P.K. They portrayed the Koran to characterize the French army’s influence as advantageous to this Oriental nation. The Moresque style of Renaissance ornament is a European adaptation of the Islamic arabesque that began in the late 15th century and was to be used in some types of work, such as bookbinding, until almost the present day.

London: Chatterjee, Indrani. [27] The growing French interest in exotic Oriental luxury and lack of liberty in the 18th century to some extent reflected a pointed analogy with France's own absolute monarchy. Romantic Orientalism incorporates African and Asian geographic locations, well-known colonial and "native" personalities, folklore, and philosophies to create a literary environment of colonial exploration from a distinctly European worldview. Lumping people together into categories like Oriental, Arab, or Jew, for example, did help people understand this part of the world. The colonial masters from the west even went as far as to claim that they knew more about the Eastern landscapes and history more than the people who had lived there for generations. During this time, the culture and objects of the East began to have a profound effect on Europe. The Miracle of the Holy Fire (1899) was intended as a picturesque satire on the local Eastern Christians, of whom, like most English visitors, Hunt took a very dim view. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who carefully painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without ever leaving the studio. [62], A major force in the mutual influence of Eastern and Western spirituality and religiosity was the Theosophical Society,[63][64] a group searching for ancient wisdom from the East and spreading Eastern religious ideas in the West. "[43], In music, Orientalism may be applied to styles occurring in different periods, such as the alla Turca, used by multiple composers including Mozart and Beethoven. This book reviews the history of this idea and how it’s still prevalent today. Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Donsciousness Venice, the traditional trading partner of the Ottomans, was the earliest centre, with France becoming more prominent in the 18th century. The biblical subjects included The Scapegoat (1856), The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860), and The Shadow of Death (1871). In 1909, upon her return to America, St Denis created her first 'Egyptian' work, Egypta.

Orientalism essays are academic essays for citation. French artists such as Eugène Delacroix, Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres painted many works depicting Islamic culture, often including lounging odalisques. Please sign in or register to post comments. Orientalism Book Summary (PDF) by Edward W. Said. The Question and Answer section for Orientalism is a great In The Tea House of the August Moon (1956), as argued by Pedro Iacobelli, there are tropes of orientalism. I’ve attempted to pull out some quotations from Edward Said’s Orientalism that I hope will help summarise some of its key points. [64][56] Between 1878 and 1882, the Society and the Arya Samaj were united as the Theosophical Society of the Arya Samaj.

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